Research

Ongoing research

White Paper on Human Illness Caused by Campylobacter from All Food and Non-Food Vectors

Updated on

This white paper will summarize data on Campylobacter as a cause of human and animal infections; discuss sources associated with illnesses; detail surveillance studies of prevalence on meat, foods and in animals; evaluate worldwide understanding of Campylobacter infections and their sources; assess effectiveness of existing interventions and detection methods; and define knowledge gaps.

Hide-on Carcass Wash System with Thermal/Chemical Dehairing and Mechanical Scraping

Updated on

This project will evaluate the effectiveness of partial dehairing from various solutions and mechanical scraping as a hide-on carcass intervention to reduce Salmonella and E. coli.

Enumeration of Salmonella enterica in meat samples with Droplet Digital PCR

Updated on

This project will demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of droplet digital PCR as an enumeration assay for Salmonella enterica in pure culture and in mixed microflora cultures as well as inoculated ground beef of different fat contents

Determination of the prevalence of resistance to biocides in Salmonella and identification of the genetic mechanisms of resistance

Updated on

This project will determine if food animal isolates of the top ten Salmonella serovars associated with human infections are resistant to chemical antimicrobial interventions used in processing. The resistance elements associated with human infections will be compared to those found in animals to determine if some chemical interventions used during processing may be selecting for the serovars that most often cause human infections

High voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) treatment of Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat deli-style, chicken breast meat inside a package

Updated on

This project will evaluate the high voltage atmospheric cold plasma technology on treatment ready-to-eat deli-style, chicken breast meat for reduction of Listeria monocytogenes and its impact on product quality.

Investigating the Development of Thermal Processing Tools to Improve the Safety of Ready-To-Eat Meat and Poultry Products

Updated on

This study will investigate the impact of compositional, physical, and intrinsic factors on pathogen lethality and the relationship between relative humidity and wet bulb control to determine if wet bulb could be utilized as a more effective and suitable lethality tool. This project builds on previous AMIF-funded research.

Evaluation of Control Strategies for Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Deli Environments with Evidence of High Prevalence

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The project will evaluate control strategies for Listeria monocytogenes in retail delis identified as having a higher risk of L. monocytogenes prevalence and persistence.

Project is co-sponsored by the Food Marketing Institute Foundation.

Role of Protozoa in the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in a Ready-to-Eat Poultry Processing Plant

Updated on

This research will determine if bacterivorous protozoa contribute to shaping bacterial communities in food processing plants and influence the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in floor drains. The proposed project is designed to identify Listeria-lytic protozoa and isolate them for further research in the use of naturally decontaminating floor drains.

Completed research

White Paper: Review on Epidemiology of Foodborne Listeriosis

Final report submitted on

This white paper provides information on epidemiology of foodborne listeriosis and interventions for controlling this pathogen. Reports of human illness and outbreaks and on levels of contamination of meat and other foods were gathered to demonstrate trends in recent years and identify foods and environments where contamination problems persist.

Salmonella levels in bone marrow and neck skin of turkey that are utilized for ground turkey in relation to Salmonella in spleen as predictor

Final report submitted on

Research determined the relationship between Salmonella contamination levels in bone marrow, neck skin, and spleen of turkey carcasses to that in ground product.

Development and Evaluation of Control Strategies for Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Deli Environments

Final report submitted on

The goals of this project were to develop and implement new control strategies for L. monocytogenes in commercial retail delis and to test the ability of these strategies to reduce and control L. monocytogenes contamination.

Project co-sponsored by the Food Marketing Institute Foundation.

White Paper: Public Health Impact of Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens

Final report submitted on

This white paper defined multi-drug resistance as related to different bacterial pathogens; discusses sources of multi-drug resistance and how resistance genes are transmitted among different strains and different species of bacteria; identifies multi-drug resistant bacteria associated with different foods and food production animals; evaluates efficacy of interventions to prevent development of multidrug resistance and to prevent contamination of foods with multidrug resistant pathogens; and recommends risk mitigation strategies in a preventive food safety process management system.

Developing Validated Time-Temperature Thermal Processing Guidelines for Ready-To-Eat Deli Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

This study focused on developing new Appendix A style time-temperature tables for non-beef ready-to-eat products such as turkey deli-breast and boneless ham. Researchers also compared the baseline results from the original work that was conducted to develop Appendix A to the results of this study for Salmonella in roast beef and confirmed the validity of its effectiveness for pathogenic E. coli and L. monocytogenes strains.

Development of Real-time PCR Methodology for the Rapid Enumeration of Low Numbers of Salmonella/Gram of Ground Beef Without Enrichment

Final report submitted on

The study developed methodology to allow the Rti-PCR reaction to detect low numbers (5 cells/g) of Salmonella in ground beef of 7, 15, and 27% fat.

Listeria control ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry industry: a white paper on the “seek and destroy” philosophy

Final report submitted on

This project developed a white-paper addressing the scientific support behind current Listeria monocytogenes process controls employed by the ready-to-eat meat and poultry industry. The “Seek and Destroy” strategy is a systematic approach to finding sites of persistent growth in food processing plants, with the goal of either eradicating or monitoring and mitigating effects of niches.

Antimicrobial interventions/application methods for the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in beef trimming and/or ground beef

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated peroxyacetic acid, novel organic acids alone or in combination with a non-ionic surfactant on beef trimmings against E. coli O157:H7, O26, O103, O111, O121, O45, and O145 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104, Newport MDR-AmpC to achieve maximum ground beef product safety without altering product quality.

Reducing or Preventing Recovery of Injured Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Natural and Organic “Uncured” Processed Meats

Final report submitted on

Due to the concern for recovery of injured L. monocytogenes on natural and organic processed meats where many conventional antimicrobials cannot be used, a series of compounds with antimicrobial potential for use in these products combined with different post-lethality treatments were evaluated for the most effective combinations. The studies demonstrated that selected natural antimicrobial ingredients and post-lethality interventions currently available to manufacturers of natural and organic ready-to-eat processed meats are effective at addressing the potential presence of Lm on such products. Moreover, the work further substantiated the effectiveness of a multiple hurdle approach for the control of Lm in RTE processed meat products.

Identification of bovine reservoirs of human pathogenic non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli

Final report submitted on

This project determined the prevalence, level, and types of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in cattle from different production systems.

White Paper on Human Illness Caused by Salmonella from All Food and Non-Foods Vectors: Update March 2013

Final report submitted on

This white paper summarizes all epidemiological data on the relationships between food and non-food vehicles and vectors, and human illnesses caused by Salmonella published in the past 5 years; compares data published since 2008 with that presented in the 2009 white paper for AMIF on vehicles associated with human illness caused by Salmonella; describes surveillance strategies, regulations, and industry initiatives to control this pathogen; and identifies gaps in understanding of food attribution data and surveillance strategies for illness caused by Salmonella.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff, the Pork Checkoff and the U.S. Poultry and Egg Association

Mitigation of Salmonella in Lymph Nodes using Pre-Harvest Interventions

Final report submitted on

The project evaluated supplementation of cattle diets with Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 to reduce Salmonella in lymph nodes at slaughter and concluded high doses of NP51 could be a viable intervention.

White paper: Clostridium difficile as a Risk Associated with Animal Sources

Final report submitted on

The white paper summarizes all historical data on C. difficile infections in humans; evaluates epidemiological data on animals, non-animal sources, and foods that have the potential to cause human infections and factors that affect transmission of C. difficile; evaluates hospital acquired C. difficile infections; evaluates worldwide understanding of C. difficile infections and their sources; and identifies the data gaps and discusses how these gaps influence the understanding of C. difficile and proposes tasks needed to close the gaps.

Effect of flagellin and intimin type expression on colonization of bovine intestine by Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)

Final report submitted on

Research demonstrated that STEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 strains expressing different flagellar types and variants of intimin adhered to bovine colonic epithelium and induced the formation of attaching-effacing lesions. Interventions that block the effects of flagella, intimin, and other adherence mechanisms in non-O157 STEC may be effective for pre-harvest control of non-O157 STEC in cattle.

Efficacy of commonly used antimicrobial interventions on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O45, O121, and non-MDR and MDR Salmonella inoculated fresh beef

Final report submitted on

The overall objective is to validate effectiveness of antimicrobial compound treatments on inactivation of STEC and Salmonella (MDR versus non-MDR strains) inoculated fresh beef. AMIF recently funded ARS to conduct a similar study on the following non-O157 STEC: O26, O103, O111, and O145. This study completed the work by adding the other two non-O157 STEC from the CDC’s top six and include MDR and non-MDR Salmonella Typhimurium and Newport.

Genetic attributes associated with the ability of different serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes to colonize the meat processing plant environment and to contaminate ready to eat meat products (chicken, turkey, pork, and beef)

Final report submitted on

The study characterized the genetic basis for the apparent differences in prevalence of different serotypes and strain types of L. monocytogenes in the processing plant environment and in foods, specifically if genes mediating adaptations are highly relevant to the ability of the pathogen to colonize the processing plant and contaminate RTE meats.

Formation, Survival, and Virulence of Stress-Induced Filamentous Listeria monocytogenes (SIFL)

Final report submitted on

The research determined if strains of Lm develop filaments under stress conditions. These filaments may contribute to pathogen survival and subsequently multiply in contaminated product or human hosts.

Evaluation of chemical decontamination treatments for beef trimmings against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 shiga toxin-producing, E. coli and antibiotic resistant and susceptible Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport

Final report submitted on

The objective of the proposed study was to determine whether interventions known for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination on beef trimmings were also effective against E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145), and parent and derived Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport strains.

Validation of Quaternary Ammonia and Hydrogen Peroxide Powder for Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Plants

Final report submitted on

This research assessed the effectiveness of two chemical interventions, quaternary ammonia and hydrogen peroxide powder, to control Lm in RTE facilities. Results can be used to validate these interventions.

Evaluating the Efficacy of Commonly used Antimicrobial Interventions on Shiga-toxin Producing E. coli Serotypes O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157

Final report submitted on

This research intended to validate the effectiveness of hot water, lactic acid, FreshFx, Bromitize, peroxyacetic acid, and SANOVA on the inactivation of STEC inoculated fresh beef. Non-O157 STEC have come under increasing regulatory oversight.

Cost Effective Treatments to Minimize Listeria monocytogenes Cross Contamination of Ready-To-Eat Meats by the In-Store Deli Meat Slicer, Phase II

Final report submitted on

This study was the 2nd phase of this research, and further evaluated deli slicers to reduce the risk of listeriosis in commercial settings. Best practices were validated as well as the comparison of cleaning and sanitizing compounds used on deli slicers.

Development of an Intervention to Reduce the Likelihood of Salmonella Contamination in Raw Poultry Intended for use in the Manufacture of Frozen, Not-Ready-to-Eat Entrees

Final report submitted on

The research identified antimicrobial treatments for reducing levels of Salmonella contamination on raw ground chicken used in the preparation of frozen, NRTE breaded chicken strips. Data demonstrated antimicrobial effectiveness, the effect on the subsequent thermal tolerance of Salmonella during partial cooking and the effect of freezing on Salmonella after partial cooking of raw, frozen, breaded chicken strips.

Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on Beef Trim

Final report submitted on

This study examined the effectiveness of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate when applied to ground beef as a surface treatment method to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella contamination.

Understanding Sodium Replacements from a Food Safety and Health Risk Perspective

Final report submitted on

This paper reviewed the use of sodium as a food safety intervention; evaluated the synergistic effects of sodium with approved food safety hurdles; identified food safety risks associated with sodium alternatives; assessed human health risks that may result from changes in dietary sodium and potassium; and evaluated risks of reduced sodium and sodium replacements for targeted at-risk populations.

Evaluation and Analysis of Meat Products Contaminated by Low Levels of Ammonia

Final report submitted on

This project developed a practical method for measuring ammonia contamination levels in meat products. The method was then used to study the uptake of ammonia by meats, and the effectiveness of methods designed to decrease contamination levels.

Sources of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Other Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci: Implications for our Food Supply?

Final report submitted on

The white paper summarized all historical data on MRSA and its relationship with animal and non-animal related infections; evaluate hospital acquired infections; evaluate worldwide understanding of MRSA infections and their sources. The white paper also identified data gaps and discussed how these gaps influence the understanding of MRSA and proposed tasks needed to close the gaps.

Update added October 2012

Assessment of Human Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs) from Cooked Meat Products

Final report submitted on

This research examined the occurrence and levels of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in various meat products, including meat products containing antioxidant containing marinades and enhancement with various ingredients.

Co-funded by the Pork Checkoff

Refinement of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) Low Dose Data from Pregnant Guinea Pigs for Human Risk Assessment

Final report submitted on

This research used animal models to develop dose response information for human listeriosis risk assessment modeling. It gathered information on the low dose region of the dose response curve and attempt to identify mechanisms by which L. monocytogenes causes illness and death.

Nutritional Benefits of Meat: A White Paper

Final report submitted on

This project compared the nutrient density, protein quality and glycemic response of various sources of protein, and evaluated the benefits of protein on bone health, immune function, inflammation, muscle wasting, and cognition.

Controlling Listeria monocytogenes in Natural, Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

The study identified ingredients to suppress growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE), deli-style, meat and poultry products that meet “natural” or organic requirements defined by USDA.

Evaluation and Performance of the Premi-Test® Salmonella Serotyping System on Pork and Poultry Isolates from Commercial Sources

Final report submitted on

This study examined the Premi-Test® Salmonella, a rapid serotyping methodology, as a means to identify strains of Salmonella spp. isolates collected from pork and poultry source. The method was rapid and convenient for processors to identify the types of strains of Salmonella present at different stages in their processing environments.

A Workshop to Develop Reporting Guidelines for Interventions Studies in Food Safety and Production Animal Science: Modifying the CONSORT Statement

Final report submitted on

This workshop provided a forum for researchers to gain consensus on modifications to the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting livestock trials with health, production or food safety outcomes. The workshop resulted in the production of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Control Trials) statement for livestock and food safety and a 22-item checklist.

White Paper on Effectiveness of Existing Interventions on Virus Inactivation in Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

This white paper provides information on the distribution of viruses in infected animals, shedding of animal and human viral pathogens, persistence of viruses in foods and the environment, thermal and non-thermal methods for destruction of viruses, and other industry practices, including GMPs and SSOPs, designed to prevent contamination of meat.

Validation of Levulinic Acid for Topical Decontamination of Meat Surfaces

Final report submitted on

This project assessed if levulinic acid, as a topical treatment, was effective against pathogenic bacteria. It evaluated whether topical application imparts residual protection against pathogen growth. This research was a follow up to previous research on the anti-listerial action of levulinate.

White Paper on Non-O157:H7 Shiga-toxin Producing E. coli from Meat and Non-Meat Sources

Final report submitted on

This white paper examined data on outbreaks caused by non-O157 STEC E. coli and for information on prevalence of these bacteria in meat, meat-producing animals, and other potential food and non-food vectors. The white paper also looked at data on the effectiveness of current interventions for controlling these foodborne pathogens and on recently devised methods for detecting these bacteria.

Beyond Intent: Assessment and Validation of On-package Handling and Cooking Instructions for Uncooked, Breaded Meat and Poultry Products to Promote Consumer Practices that Reduce Foodborne Illness Risks

Final report submitted on

This research created a representative inventory of consumer handling and cooking recommendations on packages of heat treated not fully cooked, not shelf stable poultry products available at retail and for food service in the U.S. Observing preparation methods by consumers showed that most consumers do not follow on-package cooking instructions and rarely use a thermometer to test for doneness. Research also showed that microwave wattage has a significant impact on the destruction of Salmonella in these types of products.

A Systematic Review of Literature on Pork Chain Epidemiology

Final report submitted on

This systematic review identified areas in the pork production chain where research is repetitive or lacking, and what can be done to “fill in the gaps” in risk assessment models. The process of systematic review reduces bias in the selection of research studies by the comprehensiveness and reproducibility of the search strategy and the transparent selection of articles included in review.

Co-funded by the Pork Checkoff

Assessment of the Potential Human Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Meat Products

Final report submitted on

This study reviewed major categories of fresh and processed meat products that are candidates for heterocyclic amine (HCA) formation and developed a matrix of levels of HCA among the major consumed meat products. An exposure assessment was also conducted based on known dietary consumption patterns.

Co-funded by the Pork Checkoff

A National Survey of the Nitrite/Nitrate Concentrations in Cured Meat Products and Non-meat Foods Available at Retail

Final report submitted on

This research analyzed samples of the major categories of cured meat products and highly consumed raw vegetables for residual nitrite/nitrate. The survey showed that nitrite/ nitrate contents of U.S. cured meat products have remained low since the last survey in 1997.

Co-funded by the Pork Checkoff

Cost Effective Treatments to Minimize Listeria monocytogenes Cross Contamination of Ready-To-Eat Meats by the In-Store Deli Meat Slicer

Final report submitted on

This study identified food dyes that were able to show contamination on the deli slicer. Research evaluated the reduction of contamination using current cleaning and sanitizing methods. Best practice and employee training materials were also developed.

Effect of Traditional and Modified Enhancement Solution Ingredients on Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during Storage and Cooking of Moisture-Enhanced Beef

Final report submitted on

This research identified ingredients used in brining solutions that may have antimicrobial effects during storage and/or enhance thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during cooking of moisture-enhanced beef products.

Inhibition of Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef using modified atmosphere packaging systems

Final report submitted on

This study determined if selected strains of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella could grow under extreme temperature abuse conditions in a carbon monoxide MAP packaging environment.

Evaluation of alternative cooking and cooling procedures for large, intact meat products to achieve lethality and stabilization microbiological performance standards

Final report submitted on

This project validated the safety of slower cooking and cooling times for large whole-muscle meat products to meet FSIS lethality and stabilization microbiological performance standards.

White Paper on Human Illness Caused by Salmonella from All Food and Non-Food Vectors

Final report submitted on

This white paper examined current methods for surveillance, and the collection of epidemiological information related to foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. were analyzed to assess their effectiveness and limitations. Information on illness caused by salmonellae was critically evaluated with research projects and modifications of epidemiological data collection needed to close gaps in our understanding of these issues were suggested.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff
Co-funded by the Pork Checkoff

Determining the Likelihood that Salmonella Develops Heat Resistance during Thermal Processing of Commercial, Whole-Muscle, Ready-to-Eat Meat Products

Final report submitted on

This research adapted and validated a model to predict the rate of Salmonella thermal inactivation as a function of both product temperature and prior sublethal thermal history. It also evaluated whether any resulting increase in Salmonella thermal resistance would have an impact on the compliance of typical commercial cooking operations with USDA-FSIS lethality performance standards for RTE products.

Minimum Nitrite Levels Required to Control Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Poultry Products Manufactured with Lactate and Diacetate

Final report submitted on

This project identified the minimum level of sodium nitrite required to suppress growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products manufactured with lactate and diacetate.

Impact of Ground Beef Packaging Systems and Temperature Abuse on the Safety and Quality of Ground Beef

Final report submitted on

This study determined the impact of packaging methods, including low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging with carbon monoxide, and temperature abuse on the pathogen loads in ground beef inoculated with E. coli O157 and Salmonella. It also evaluated the effect of packaging methods and temperature abuse on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of ground beef.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff

Microbial Risk Factors Associated With Condensation In Ready-To-Eat Processing Facilities

Final report submitted on

This study determined the microbial risk associated with condensation and identify controllable risk factors associated with its formation. The risk factors of condensation in processing environments where both fresh and ready-to-eat products are produced was examined.

Efficacy of chlorine dioxide against Listeria monocytogenes in brine solutions

Final report submitted on

This study evaluated the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in brine solutions containing chlorine dioxide.

Anti-Listeria Action of Levulinate

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated the extent to which levulinate, a 5-carbon organic acid, inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products as compared to, and in combination with, lactate and diacetate.

White Paper: Destruction of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

This white paper determined the generally accepted time and temperature requirements for inactivation of the H5N1 virus in meat and poultry products. It reviewed non-thermal methods for inactivation of the H5N1 virus and their effectiveness and practicality in meat and poultry matrices. Finally, data gaps regarding inactivation of these viruses were identified.

White Paper on Human Illness Caused by E. coli O157:H7 from Food and Non-Food Sources

Final report submitted on

This white paper compiled all outbreak data and illness cases attributed to E. coli O157:H7 from both food and non-food sources. It provided a historical timeline summarizing the major events occurring from the first recognized illness to the produce outbreak in late 2006.

Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Generic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. On Beef Trimmings Prior to Grinding Using a Controlled Phase Carbon Dioxide (CPCO2) System.

Final report submitted on

This study validated that controlled phase carbon dioxide was an effective method for reducing E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and aerobic spoilage bacteria on beef trim and ground beef. This method had little or no impact on quality or sensory attributes.

The Role of Super-shedders in Determining Feedlot Pen Prevalence of E. coli O157:H7

Final report submitted on

This research confirmed the role of super-shedders cattle in the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to other cattle in a feedlot environment. Removing a super-shedder from a pen resulted in a decrease in shedding and/or pen prevalence; however the effect was not statistically significant. The addition of a super-shedder to a naïve pen did lead to a statistically significant increase in shedding and prevalence.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff

Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat products (deli turkey breast and frankfurter) by monocaprylin

Final report submitted on

The research determined that surface treatment using monocaprylin with acetic acid was effective in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters. As an ingredient added to the product, monocaprylin was only moderately effective.

Controlling Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products Using Food-Approved Antimicrobials Benzoate, Propionate, and Sorbate

Final report submitted on

This study evaluated the efficacy of antimycotics (sorbate, propionate and benzoate) to control the growth of L. monocytogenes in uncured turkey and cured bologna. The addition of 0.1% combined antimycotic agents effectively delayed or prevented growth of L. monocytogenes in cured processed meat.

Pre- and Post-package Pasteurization of RTE Meats for Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes

Final report submitted on

This research showed that combinations of pre- and post-packaging processing were effective in reducing levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Research also demonstrated that some pre-packaging antimicrobials were more effective than others, with most not effective on uncured turkey products.

Development and Validation of Thermal Surrogate Microorganisms in Ground Beef for In-Plant Critical Control Point Validation Studies

Final report submitted on

This study identified a non-pathogenic bacterium that has heat resistance properties similar to Listeria and Salmonella in meat and poultry. Research developed protocols for the use of a non-pathogenic surrogate organisms in processing facilities to validate thermal processing.

The Use of Egg Yolk Anti-O157:H7 Immunoglobulin to Clear E. coli O157:H7 from the Intestinal Tracts of Cattle

Final report submitted on

The research demonstrated that egg antibodies were an effective antibody production method. It also showed, unexpectedly, that chitosan, the carrier of the antibody, showed a statistically significant reduction in shedding E. coli O157:H7.

Review of FSIS Risk Assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in Deli Meats

Final report submitted on

This project reviewed the FSIS Risk Assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats and examined the model assumptions and model construct to determine whether they were appropriate and applicable to actual industry “what if” scenarios.

Improving The Utilization Of Microbial Pathogen Computer Models For Validating Thermal Processes In The Meat Industry

Final report submitted on

This research provided a complete secondary model for log-D with temperature, fat content and moisture content as independent variables. It also expanded thermal inactivation parameters for Salmonella lethality models. The results led to improved user interface and functionality for the AMI Process Lethality Spreadsheet.

Development of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) Applications for Listeria Detection and Monitoring In-Plant Food Processing Plants

Final report submitted on

This research continued the development of IMS for detection of Listeria. It also focused on developing sample mechanisms for direct and aerosol sampling that would allow the samples to be analyzed directly by IMS techniques.

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Processed Meat and Poultry by Combinations of Antimicrobials

Final report submitted on

This research followed up on previous research that demonstrated the effectiveness of antimycotic agents in controlling Listeria. The resulting data has been used to obtain provisional FSIS approval of sorbate, benzoate and propionate

The role of aerosols in transmission of microorganisms (including Listeria) to ready-to-eat meat/poultry products

Final report submitted on

This study demonstrated that aerosol particle size, relative humidity and distance from the air handling unit impacted settling rate and potential that exposed ready-to-eat products may become contaminated.

Use of Warm (55°) 2.5% or 5.0% Lactic Acid for: (A) Reducing Microbial Counts on Beef Subprimal Cuts and Beef Trimmings Following Fabrication, and (B) Reducing Incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in Combo-Bins of Beef Trimmings and Inside (in the interior) Beef Cuts Subjected to Blade/Needle or Moisture-Enhancement Tenderization

Final report submitted on

This research demonstrated that hot water and warm lactic acid were effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 at high inoculation levels. It also showed that needle enhancement resulted in greater internalization of O157 when compared with blade tenderization. The results provided the necessary data for FSIS to allow use of this organic acid intervention on primals.

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Drinking Water of Cattle by Sodium Caprylate

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated the addition of sodium caprylate, a natural eight-carbon fatty acid, to cattle drinking water in order to inactivate E. coli O157:H7. The addition of sodium caprylate proved to significantly reduce the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in water for a sustained period of time even in the presence of fecal matter or residual feed.

Methods to Control E. coli O157:H7 in Drinking Water for Cattle

Final report submitted on

This study developed practical interventions for use on-farm and in feedlots to control E. coli O157:H7 in cattle drinking water. Specific competitive exclusion microorganisms were highly effective in reducing the presence of E. coli O157:H7.

Comparison Of Use Of Activated Lactoferrin With Use Of A “Gold Standard” Combination/Concentration of Antimicrobials for Post-Processing Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-To-Eat Meat Products

Final report submitted on

This study showed that lactoferrin added as a formulation ingredient in bologna was not as effective as the combination of other antimicrobials, but when used in frankfurters, lactoferrin combined with other antimicrobials was effective.

Comparison of Rapid Test Methods and Validation of Composite Sampling for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Raw Beef Trims and Raw Ground Beef

Final report submitted on

This study evaluated the effect of compositing on detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef trim and raw ground beef by four 8 hour test kits. The study provided valuable insight on E. coli O157:H7 testing programs for beef processors.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff

Effects of Low-Dose, Low-Penetration Electron Beam Irradiation of Chilled Beef Carcass Surface Cuts on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Meat Quality

Final report submitted on

This series of studies demonstrated that surface electron-beam irradiation on beef dramatically reduced levels of E. coli O157:H7 while have no measurable impact on organoleptic, shelf life or nutritional status or resulting beef products.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff

Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in Beef Feedlot Cattle using Varying Doses of a Direct-Fed Microbial

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated three different doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP 51 and a combination treatment of NP51 and NP45 on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in finishing beef cattle. The highest concentration of NP51 was the most effective in reducing fecal shedding. There were no detrimental effects of the treatments used in these studies on animal performance.

Funded in part by The Beef Checkoff

Competitive Exclusion of Escherichia coli O157 using Non Pathogenic Colicin Producing Escherichia coli Strains

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated the ability of various non-pathogenic colicin producing strains of E. coli to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157 and Shiga-toxin producing strains. Selected strains were able to inhibit the growth of O157:H7 in a laboratory environment.

E. coli O157:H7 Intimin Expressed by Transgenic Plant Cells as a Candidate Oral Vaccine for Cattle

Final report submitted on

This study focused on the development of a vaccine that would be delivered orally through corn using intiminO157 to prevent cattle from becoming infected with E. coli O157:H7. Further studies are being conducted on intimin.

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meats Using Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride (CPC) and Shelf Life Extension of RTE Meats Treated with CPC

Final report submitted on

Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) was evaluated through various application parameters for its antimicrobial effects on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products in an effort to retard growth of and/or eliminate Listeria monocytogenes.

Distribution of Virulent and Avirulent Subclones of E. coli O157:H7 in the U.S.

Final report submitted on

The ability to distinguish between virulent and avirulent sublcones of E. coli O157:H7 was determined by genetic fingerprinting. Methods were developed and refined to improve the analysis of data in this field.

Antimicrobial Effects of Surface Treatments and Ingredients on Cured RTE Meat Products

Final report submitted on

Combinations of a novel ingredient called Safe2O™HOH were evaluated along with lactic acid, potassium lactate and propionic acid to determine the inhibitory effects of each of these products singly and in combination to retard and/or eliminate the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

Elite Herb Extracts Containing High Rosmarinic Acid and Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

This study investigated herbal extracts high in rosmarinic acid (rosemary antioxidants) as Listeria monocytogenes inhibitors.

Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation in RTE Meat Processing Environments

Final report submitted on

This research investigated methods to reduce biofilms of L.m. on equipment and floor surfaces in RTE meat processing environments, by removal and inhibition of initial attachment and biofilm formation. The research evaluated the efficacy of cleaners and sanitizers on L.m. biofilms, including the assessment of various surface coatings that will inhibit attachment.

Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Facilities by Competitive Exclusion Microorganisms

Final report submitted on

This research determined whether the introduction of harmless bacteria in the food processing facilities would reduce and/or eliminate Listeria monocytogenes via competitive exclusion.

Optimum Radiation Dose to Eliminate Listeria monocytogenes in Packaged RTE Processed Meats and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in RTE Processed Meats after Irradiation Processing

Final report submitted on

This study investigated the optimal radiation dose required to eliminate defined loads of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged ready-to-eat meat products.

Pathogen Inhibition and Shelf-Life of Raw and Precooked Meat with Protamine

Final report submitted on

This project determined the antimicrobial activity of different levels of protamine, a natural antimicrobial, on Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes on meat and poultry before and after cooking.

Use of Pediocin with Other Barriers for Control of L.m. in RTE Processed Meats

Final report submitted on

Pediocin, a natural antimicrobial, was evaluated as a topical treatment for finished ready-to-eat products to determine if it will retard Listeria monocytogenes growth. The results indicated that the pediocin significantly reduced the number of Lm on packaged frankfurters and delayed growth of the remaining cells during storage.

Develop Optimal Methods for Sampling/Colonal Feces, Hides and Carcasses to Test for the Presence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.

Final report submitted on

This research identified optimal methods to test for the presence of Salmonella spp. on the hides, carcasses and feces of cattle.

Testing of Probiotic Bacteria for the Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cattle

Final report submitted on

Probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus acidophilus; NPC 747 and NPC 750) was added to cattle feed to determine its effect on the elimination or reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. The probiotic bacterium significantly decreased the number of cattle shedding E. coli O157:H7, and had either no effect or slightly improved the feedlot performance of finishing beef steers.

Evaluation of Efficacy of a Bacteriophage System in Preventing or Modulating E. coli O157:H7 Infection of Cattle

Final report submitted on

This research evaluated a specific bacteriophage treatment intended to reduce the probability of infection with E. coli and/or the amount shed if an infection was present. The bacteriophage treatment was not effective in reducing shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in calves. A “Trojan calf” model was developed which showed that all animals that come in contact with an animal shedding E. coli in a confined space will test positive.

Review of Scientific Literature Related to Survival of Pathogenic Foodborne Bacteria during Cooling of Heat-treated, RTE Meat and Poultry Products and Thawing of Frozen Raw Meat and Poultry

Final report submitted on

A review of the scientific literature on the survival of pathogenic foodborne bacteria during the cooling of heat-treated, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products and the thawing of frozen raw meat and poultry products.

Validation of the Use of Composite Sampling for Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products

Final report submitted on

This study determined what were the most reliable methods for detection of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTE products and if RTE meat products could be composited into analytical units greater than 25g as a means of reducing the labor and cost.

1999 U.S. Cold Temperature Study Design

Final report submitted on

This project conducted a national survey of temperatures of processed meat products at retail and upon arrival at home, after shopping. Data from this study was used in the FDA/USDA Risk Assessment for Listeria monocytogenes.

Implement Hide and Carcass Survey to Verify Effectiveness of Slaughter Procedures and Carcass Interventions in Controlling E. coli O157:H7

Final report submitted on

A study conducted in 12 beef slaughtering plants validated the feasibility of testing carcasses as an alternative to testing ground beef in production and distribution channels. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7 on carcasses was reduced by the slaughter process and application of microbial intervention steps.

Literature Survey of the Various Techniques Used in Listeria Intervention

Final report submitted on

A review of the scientific literature on the role of various intervention strategies on the control of Listeria monocytogenes in processed meats.